Humanistic qualities are highly valued complements to the biopsychosocial approach, which involves the application of the scientific method to diverse biological, psychological, and social phenomena as related to human health.

Reflection Paper: Addiction and Theories
Ksir, C., Hart, C., Ray,O. Drugs, Society and Human Behavior, Twelfth Edition. McGraw Hill Publisher
Read Chapter 2 of the text, note the definitions and the major theories about how drug use leads to drug abuse/addiction.
What is your favorite theory(s) of Addiction?
Why do people become addicted to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD)?
Write a definition of addiction/dependency:
Nature of addiction/dependency – etiology: what happens to a person who is addicted/dependent on ATOD (See also chapter 1 “Drug Dependence” and “Stages of Drug Dependence”; Chapter 2 “The vicious Cycle of Drug Addiction)
Bio-Psycho-Social Model: write your favorite explanations of why someone might become addicted to AOD, based on specific theories in each of the following categories
Biological causes/factors of addiction/dependency
Psychological causes/factors of addiction/dependency
Social causes/factors of addiction/dependency
The Biopsychosocial Approach
Text Box: Biosphere Society/ Nation Culture/Subculture Community Family Individual Nervous System Organs Tissues Cells MoleculesThe biopsychosocial approach was developed at Rochester decades ago by Drs. George Engel and John Romano. While traditional biomedical models of clinical medicine focus on pathophysiology and other biological approaches to disease, the biopsychosocial approach in our training programs emphasize the importance of understanding human health and illness in their fullest contexts. The biopsychosocial approach systematically considers biological, psychological, and social factors and their complex interactions in understanding health, illness, and health care delivery.
• Biological, psychological, and social factors exist along a continuum of natural systems, as depicted in the list here.
• Systematic consideration of psychological and social factors requires application of relevant social sciences, just as consideration of biological factors requires application of relevant natural sciences. Therefore, both the natural and social sciences are ‘basic’ to medical practice. In other words, psychological and social factors are not merely epiphenomena: they can be understood in scientific ways at their own levels as well as in regard to their biological correlates.
• Humanistic qualities are highly valued complements to the biopsychosocial approach, which involves the application of the scientific method to diverse biological, psychological, and social phenomena as related to human health.
• While the biomedical approach takes the reductionistic view that all phenomena are best understood at the lowest level of natural systems (e.g., cellular or molecular), the biopsychosocial approach recognizes that different clinical scenarios may be most usefully understood scientifically at several levels of the natural systems continuum.
To apply the biopsychosocial approach to clinical practice, the clinician should:
• Recognize that relationships are central to providing health care
• Use self-awareness as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool
• Elicit the patient’s history in the context of life circumstances
• Decide which aspects of biological, psychological, and social domains are most important to understanding and promoting the patient’s health
• Provide multidimensional treatment
The Biopsychosocial Approach
REFERENCES
Engel GL: The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science 1977;196:129-136.
Engel GL: The clinical application of the biopsychosocial model. Am J Psychiatry 1980;137:535-544.
Frankel RM, Quill TE, McDaniel SH (Eds.): The Biopsychosocial Approach: Past, Present, Future.University of Rochester Press, Rochester, NY, 2003.
Borrell-Carrió F, Suchman AL, Epstein RM: The biopsychosocial model 25 years later: principles, practice, and scientific inquiry. Ann Fam Med 2004;2:576-582.
Cohen J, Brown Clark S: John Romano and George Engel: Their Lives and Work.University of Rochester Press, Rochester, NY, and Boydell and Brewer Limited, Suffolk UK, 2010.

 
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Discuss how the Affordable Care Act (ACA) supported the Future of Nursing initiatives

Discuss the meaning of ‘full partners’
Explain initiatives implemented and/or are recommended to advance this key message
Discuss how the Affordable Care Act (ACA) supported the Future of Nursing initiatives
Discuss 2 initiatives that may be affected if the American Health Care Act is voted into law

 
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Explain the differences between use, abuse and addiction/dependence

Summary Paper on Addiction
In this class you have already written (Response paper 1 and 2) a paper describing a definition of addiction and another paper explaining the BioPsychoSocial theories of addiction. Now write this paper as a summary of the information you have gathered. The ASAM website and the textbook are your sources of information so far, but you can use other sources and include them in your citations.
Write a 3 page paper (typed, double spaced) explaining alcohol/drug addiction or dependency. Use this rubric and make sure to include certain required information. Use at least 2 credible sources of information and include this in the bibliography.
Define Addiction/Dependency
Explain the differences between use, abuse and addiction/dependence
3 points
Signs and Symptoms of Addiction
(Use DSM and ASAM definitions)
Describe the physical and psychological features of addiction.
4 points
Theory or Theories
Describe the Disease Model of addiction
2 points
Resources/Bibliography
Properly cite at least 2 credible sources of information.
1 point

 
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Cultural and social landscape in which the story is situated

By the due date assigned, post your response of at least 150-200 words to the Discussion Area. By the end of the week, comment on at least two of your classmates’ submissions.
IMPORTANT NOTE: Your instructor will assign a play for the class to read and will post the information as a Week 3 Announcement (i.e., The Glass Menagerie, Trifles, or A Doll’s House).
Prompt: The setting (space, place, and time) forms the backdrop and defines the atmosphere for a play. Settings sometimes symbolically present plot and character issues. For example, a locked door could represent an obstacle within a character’s life. At other times, the setting can limit or permit the characters’ actions.
Think about the setting in the play you read. Consider these aspects:
Physical space in which the story is placed (confined or open, small or large, limited to one place or not)
Cultural and social landscape in which the story is situated
Time in which the action takes place (time of day, year, era, or century)
Stage directions, including lighting, music, and placement of props
Discuss the setting and stage directions in the play you read. Does the setting produce certain responses from the audience? In what ways does the setting influence the events? Does the setting constrain or liberate the characters? How does the setting reflect the central ideas of the play?
Tips: Remember to provide evidence for your claims in the form of quoted passages from the play. Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries should be cited according to APA rules of style, including in-text and reference citations. Quoted material should not exceed 25% of the document.
Check grammar and spelling before posting.
Williams, The Glass Menagerie is the play.

 
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