Alcohol and Chemical Substance Abuse

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Alcohol and Chemical Substance Abuse

5th Edition, 2008

ISBN: 13: 978-0-495-09207-0

PSY 517

Alcohol and Chemical Substance Abuse

Text Drug Use and Abuse

Authors:

Stephen A. Maisto, Mark Galizio, and Gerald J. Connors

Publisher:

Thomson Learning, Inc.

a.

Mu l t i ple Choice Quest i ons (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

l. Respondents in the U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health are __ .

a. all ages

b. 12 years of age or older

c. 18 years of age or older

d. 21 years of age or older

2. How was cannabis sativa used in ancient China?

b. it was smoked in a pipe

c. it was brewed as tea

d. it was used as an herb in cooking

e. none of these

3. An unintended consequence of the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914 was that, in the years since its passage, the law served to shift opium addicts to __ .

a. cocaine

b. alcohol

c. heroin

d. barbiturates

4. Recent brain imaging research suggests that drug craving is associated with activity in the

a. hypothalamus

b. hippocampus

c. temporal lobe

d. limbic areas

5. A common street term for injecting a drug intravenously is __ .

a. freebasing

b. going cold turkey

c. mainlining

d. tripping

6. How many poppy seed bagels would need to be consumed in order to obtain a positive screen for opiates?

a. 2

b. 10

c. 25

d. 100

f.

7. The earl iest use of cocai ne was

a. chewing the coca leaf by the Inca

b. drinking Coca-Cola in nineteenth century United States

c. snorting cocaine in the fifth century

d. smoking crack by the Aztecs

8. The depression that follows heavy use of cocaine is thought to be related to __ .

a. permanent brain damage

b. GABA depletion

c. dopamine depletion

d. liver damage

9. Which of the following is not one of the stages of cocaine abstinence?

a.

crash

b.

withdrawal

c.

extinction

d.

craving

10. __ smoking is the most toxic way to smoke tobacco.

a. Cigar

b. Pipe

c. Cigarette

d. Cigar or pipe

1l. The grou p most likely to use moist sn uff are __ .

a. young females

b. young males

c. adult men who earn less than $5,OOO / year

d. psychiatric outpatients

12. Caffeine-producing plants are indigenous to __ .

a.

China

b.

West Africa

c.

North America

d.

South America

e.

all of these

g.

13. Caffeine is excreted from the body mainly __ .

a. in the feces

b. in saliva

c. by the kidneys

d. in pure form

14. Korsakoff’s syndrome __ .

a. produces serious impairments in short-term memory

b. involves damage to the brain structure

c. is most directly due to alcohol abuse

d. often includes considerable confusion and confabulation

e. all of these

15. The recovery of many Vietnam veterans from heroin addiction reveals that __ .

a. treatment programs have a high failure rate

b. environment has much to do with recovery

c. heroin is not really an addictive drug

d. heroin withdrawal symptoms are the only cause of relapse

16. __ is a concentrated liquid marijuana extract derived from the cannabis plant using solvents.

a. PCP

b. AMP

c. Hashish

d. Hash oil

17. Who discovered the hallucinogenic properties of LSD?

a. Timothy Leary

b. Aldous Huxley

c. Ken Kesey

d. Albert Hoffman

18. Methaqualone (Quaaludes) are currently schedule __ drugs.

a. I

b. II

c. III

d. IV

h.

19. __ is the only drug in psychiatry for which there is effective prophylaxis against disease recurrence.

a. Prozac

b. Chlorpromazine

c. Lithium

d. Haldol

20. What law made it possible to market hormones and herbal products without FDA regulation?

a. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act

b. Kefauver-Harris Amendment

c. Analogue Act

d. Harrison Act

21. Which of the following is used as a sleeping aid?

a. St. John’s wort

b. Ginkgo biloba

c. Ma Huang (Ephedra)

d. Valerian

22. In the __ model, individuals are seen as personally responsible for problems they incur from their drug and alcohol use.

a. sociocultural

b. social learning

c. biological

d. moral

23. A TV spot emphasizing the need not to let friends drive drunk would be an example of __ prevention.

a. primary

b. secondary

c. tertiary

d. none of these

i.

19. __ is the only drug in psychiatry for which there is effective prophylaxis against disease recurrence.

a. Prozac

b. Chlorpromazine

c. Lithium

d. Haldol

20. What law made it possible to market hormones and herbal products without FDA regulation?

a. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act

b. Kefauver-Harris Amendment

c. Analogue Act

d. Harrison Act

2l. Which of the following is used as a sleeping aid?

a. St. John’s wort

b. Ginkgo biloba

c. Ma Huang (Ephedra)

d. Valerian

22. In the __ model, individuals are seen as personally responsible for problems they incur from their drug and alcohol use.

a. sociocu Itural

b. social learning

c. biological

d. moral

23. A TV spot emphasizing the need not to let friends drive drunk would be an example of __ prevention.

a. primary

b. secondary

c. tertiary

d. none of these

j.

24. The Principles of Drug Abuse Prevention published by NIDA in 2003 do not address __ .

a. the family

b. school

c. the community

d. the workplace

25. Server interventions or dram shop laws arise from the __ model of prevention.

a. sociocu Itural

b. distribution of consumption

c. proscriptive

d. harm reduction

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

Multiple Choice Q u e s t i o ns (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. __ drugs are those that affect moods, thinking, and behavior.

a. Psychoaffective

b. Psychoactive

c. Psychotropic

d. Psychophysiological

2. Which of the following racial/ethnic differences were found in the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health?

a. Whites and Hispanics were not significantly different in their illicit drug use.

b. Whites reported more prevalent alcohol use than Hispanics.

c. Blacks reported less prevalent alcohol use than whites.

d. all of these

e. none of these

3. In what century did the Opium Wars occur?

a. 17th

b. 18th

c. 19th

d. 20th

4. Who won the first Opium War?

a. China

b. India

c. Britain

d. No one won

5. Ecstasy is also known as __ .

a. MDMA

b. LSD

c. GHB

d. Special K

6. The use of the stimulant khat is most common in

a.

Afghan istan

b.

Peru

c.

Somalia

d.

China

e.

India

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

7. Axons are frequently covered with a sheath known as __ .

a. dopamine

b. the exoskeleton

c. myelin

d. the dendritic membrane

8. In the 1800s, cocaine was used to treat __ .

a. depressed mood

b. pain

c. opiate addiction

d. depressed mood or pain

e. all of these

9. __ receptors are sometimes termed “fast” receptors because the entire process is completed in just a few milliseconds.

a. Partical

b. Channel

c. lonotropic

d. Metabotropic

10. The site between neuron and muscle cells where chemical release causes muscle cells to contract is the

a. synapse

b. dendrite

c. neuromuscular junction

d. medulla

e. axon

11. Which of the following is used to treat Parkinson’S disease?

a. monoamine oxidase

b. Aricept

c. L-dopa

d. Thorazi ne

12. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are known collectively as __ .

a. enzymes

b. antidepressants

c. peptides

d. monoamines

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

13. Which of the following neurotransmitters is mimicked by the active chemical in mari- juana?

a. anandamide

b. acetylcholine

c. GABA

d. endorphin

14. Which of the following is not one of the major divisions of the human brain?

a. hindbrain

b. midbrain

c. forebrain

d. backbrain

15. Phineas Gage damaged his frontal lobe in a freak accident. What problems did he experience after his injury?

a. He became paralyzed.

b. He lost the abi I ity to use language.

c. He could no longer control his emotions or impulses.

d. He was in a coma for 14 years.

16. Which of the following techniques involves injecting radioactive isotopes into the brain?

a. CAT scan

b. PET scan

c. MRI

d. none of these

17. Recent brain imaging research suggests that drug craving is associated with activity in the

a. hypothalamus

b. hippocampus

c. temporal lobe

d. limbic areas

18. When drugs are swallowed, they pass through the stomach and are absorbed in the

a. small i ntesti ne

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

b. kidneys

c. liver

d. large intestine

19. Two occasions for not taking a drug __ are when the drug irritates body tissue, or if large volumes of solution must be used.

a. subcutaneously

b. intramuscularly

c. intravenously

d. orally

20. The __ route of administration is preferable to oral administration for drugs that irritate the stomach and cause vomiting.

a. intravenous

b. intramuscular

c. transdermal

d. sublingual

21. Which of the following systems does not receive major portions of a drug rapidly, due to a low volume of blood flow?

a.

muscles

b.

heart

c.

brain

d.

kidney

22. __ means that the rate at which a drug is metabolized is independent of its concentration in the blood.

a. Zero-order kinetics

b. First-order kinetics

c. First-pass metabolization

d. Bioavailability

23. Drinking large quantities of water would be an example of an attempt to alter the results of a drug test by __ .

a. dilution

b. adulteration

c. substitution

d. none of these

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

24. How long can alcohol be detected in the system by using a drug test?

a. up to one day

b. up to one week

c. up to one month

d. none of the above

25. __ refers to the minimum dose of a drug that yields its efficacy.

a. Effective dose

b. Therapeutic index

c. Drug potency

d. Placebo

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

Wr i tte As signment for Unit One

Be sure to refer to the course syllabus for instructions on format, length, and other information on how to complete this assignment.

Please answer O NE of the following:

1. List and describe the criteria for a DSM-IV diagnosis of Substance Use Disorder. What factors are involved in making this diagnosis?

2. Discuss the ways that brain damage can be assessed.

3. Describe the processes involved in drug absorption, distribution, and elimination.

What major organs are involved in these processes?

44

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

Multiple C h o i ce Ques ti o n (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

l. In __ tolerance, tolerance to one drug may extend to other closely related drugs.

a. dispositional tolerance

b. functional

c. reverse

d. cross

2. __ studies allow behavioral pharmacologists to classify experimental drugs accord- ing to their subjective effects even before they have been administered to people.

a. Drug discrimination

b. Conflict paradigm

c. Placebo control

d. Classical conditioning

3. Subjects in Phase 1 of clinical trials on humans during new drug development typi- cally include __ .

a. 50 patients with the target disease

b. 50 normal volunteers

c. 1,000 patients with the target disease

d. 1,000 normal volunteers

4. As of 2002, generic drugs account for __ of the prescription drugs that are dis- pensed in the U.S.

a. 10

b. 25

c. 50

d. 75

5. __ is an example of a drug that was approved too early, before potential side effects could adequately be explored.

a. AZT

b. Penicillin

c. Thalidomide

d. Prozac

6. What criminal organization first controlled the smuggling of cocaine into the US?

a. Medellin cartel

b. Cali cartel

c. Mafia

d. Taliban

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

7. In what ways does smoking cocaine differ from taking it orally or intranasally?

a. smoking produces more rapid effects

b. smoking produces less intense effects

c. smoking is less likely to result in overdose

d. smoking produces more rapid and less intense effects

e. all of these are true

8. Which of the following are effects of high doses of stimulant drugs?

a. anorectic effects

b. stereotyped behavior

c. paranoid reactions

d. all of the above

9. Which of the following is not one of the stages of cocaine abstinence?

a. crash

b. withdrawal

c. extinction

d. craving

10. The active ingredient in khat is __ .

a. cocaine

b. caffeine

c. cathinone

d. amphetamine

11. How is snuff most commonly taken in Europe?

a. chewing

b. dipping

c. smoking

d. sniffing

12. Overall, the prevalence of current smokers has __ since 1965.

a. decreased

b. increased

c. remained constant

d. declined for women, but increased for men

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

13. Where has the prevalence of smoking increased in recent years?

a. the United States

b. Western Europe

c. the developing countries of Asia

d. all of these

e. Western Europe and the developing countries of Asia

14. What has been the outcome of lawsuits filed against tobacco companies for harm caused by cigarette smoki ng?

a. Lawsuits filed by individuals and families have been more successful than class-ac- tion lawsuits.

b. Class-action lawsuits have been more successful than lawsuits filed by individuals and families.

c. Lawsuits filed by individuals and families and class-action lawsuits have both been largely successful.

d. Neither class-action lawsu its nor those fi led by i nd ivid uals and fam i I ies have been successfu I.

15. The focus of the harm reduction approach to nicotine dependence is to __ .

a. eliminate nicotine use entirely

b. reduce smoking to a standardized “healthy level”

c. eliminate or reduce the negative consequences of nicotine use

d. encourage smokers to switch to healthier methods of nicotine use, such as nicotine gum

16. Caffeine is one of three naturally occurring compounds known as the __ .

a. theobromines

b. methylxanth i nes

c. endorphi ns

d. tricyclics

17. Tea contains

as well as caffeine.

a. theophylline

b. theobromine

c. nicotine

d. all of these

e. theophylline and theobromine

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

18. In the United States, caffeine is most often consumed in the form of __ .

a. chocolate

b. tea

c. colas

d. coffee

19. After consumption, the concentration of caffeine is __ .

a. highest in the liver

b. highest in the kidneys

c. highest in the brain

d. similar throughout the body

20. Which of the following does not slow the process of caffeine metabolism and excre- tion?

a. cigarette smoking

b. liver disease

c. pregnancy

d. use of oral contraceptives

21. Cigarette smokers metabolize caffeine __ nonsmokers.

a. more quickly than

b. more slowly than

c. at the same rate as

22. Physical dependence to caffeine can develop __ .

a. almost immediately

b. after 3 consecutive days of regular use

c. after one month of regular use

d. physica I dependence does not develop to caffei ne

23. The explanation for caffeine’s acute effects that is most accepted now is the __ hypothesis.

a. phosphodiesterase

b. aminophylline

c. adenosi ne

d. glucose

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

24. Individuals who suffer from __ should be careful when using caffeine.

a. schizophrenia

b. alcohol dependence

c. depression

d. anxiety

25. Caffeine has been used in a variety of medications to produce __ .

a. cerebral stimulation

b. diuresis

c. coronary constriction

d. all of these

e. cerebral stimulation and diuresis only

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

W r itten Ass i g n me nt for Unit T w o

Be sure to refer to this course syllabus for instructions on format, length, and other information on how to complete this assignment. Please answer ONE of the following:

1. How are new drugs discovered, developed and distributed? What are the different levels of testing new drugs?

2. Compare and contrast the major effects of cocaine and the amphetamines.

3. Describe the processes of tolerance to and dependence to nicotine. What is the time frame of tolerance to nicotine? What are the symptoms of dependence?

88

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

Multip l e Cho i ce Que sti o ns (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) 1. Fermented beverages have an alcohol content no higher than __ .

a. 5

b. 15

c. 25

d. 40

2. When calculating per capita alcohol consumption, the U.S. Census considers all indi- viduals over the age of __ .

a. 14

b. 16

c. 18

d. 21

3. __ supported the Temperance Movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

a. John D. Rockefeller

b. Andrew Carnegie

c. Henry Ford

d. All of these

e. John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie only

4. According to the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, __ of the United States sample reported heavy alcohol use in the month preceding the interview.

a. 6-7

b. 10-11

c. 25-26

d. 30-31

5. Which of the following would not lead to a slower absorption of alcohol.

a. eating while drinking

b. drinking milk

c. drinking carbonated rather than noncarbonated alcoholic beverages

d. drinking milk or drinking carbonated rather than noncarbonated alcoholic beverages

6. __ is the process by which the energy in foods is released in the form of heat and work.

a. Metabolism

b. Hydrogenation

c. Oxidation

d. Excretion

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

7. Which of the following is an example of a Phase 2 alcohol withdrawal symptom?

a. grand mal seizures

b. hallucinations

c. shakes

d. high body temperature and abnormally rapid heart beat

8. Opium was first used by __ .

a. the Inca people of South America

b. the Sumerians and Assyrians

c. the Chinese

d. New Guinea Papuans

9. The federal law that prohibited non-medical use of opiates was the __ .

a. Harrison Act

b. Analogue Act

c. Single Convention

d. Drug Abuse Control Amendment

10. Intravenous drug users represent __ of AIDS cases.

a. less than 1

b. about 5

c. nearly 25

d. about 75

11. The rise in illegal use of prescription opiates in the first few years of this century was largely related to what drug?

a. Oxycontin

b. naloxone

c. heroin

d. Prozac

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

12. Most illicit drug use is decreasing in recent years. Which of the following drugs is showing sharply increased rates of use?

a. cocaine

b. LSD

c. Barbiturates

d. Oxyconti n

13. Which of the following is true of the designer drug MPTP?

a. It was sold on the street as heroin.

b. It was designed to be MPPP.

c. It produces Parkinson’s symptoms.

d. All of these are true.

14. Opiate antagonists such as naloxone (Narcane) __ .

a. block the effects of opiates

b. produce an intense high or “rush”

c. are used in the treatment of depression

d. all of these

15. The major medical use for opiate drugs is treatment of __ .

a. anxiety

b. depression

c. severe pai n

d. schizophrenia

16. Which of the following is true of a comparison between depressant drugs (like alco- hol) and opiate drugs (like heroin)?

a. alcohol suppresses opiate withdrawal symptoms

b. there is cross-tolerance between them

c. they show additive effects, or synergy

d. all of these

17. The __ , published in 1944 and created at the request of the mayor of New York, concluded that marijuana use was not particularly harmful to the user or to society at large.

a. Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report

b. LeDain Commission Report

c. LaGuardia Commission Report

d. Baroness Wootton Report

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

18. Which of the following has been reported as a result of marijuana use?

a. more intense sexual pleasure

b. disinterest in sex

c. impotence

d. all of these

e. disinterest in sex and impotence

19. The active chemical in hallucinogenic mushrooms is __ .

a. MDMA

b. LSD

c. psilocybin

d. phencyclidine

20. The active chemical in the Peyote cactus is __ .

a. psilocybin

b. mescaline

c. LSD

d. phencyclidine

21. Ayahuasca or yage is thought by some native South American tribes to produce:

a. healing properties

b. telepathic effects

c. pain relief

d. enhanced sexual potency

22. LSD was discovered by __ .

a. Timothy Leary

b. St. Anthony

c. Albert Hofmann

d. Robert Morton

23. Which of the following is true of the serotonergic hallucinogens?

a. they produce visual hallucinations

b. they are sympathomimetic

c. they decrease heart rate and blood pressure

d. they produce visual hallucinations and are sympathomimetic

e. all of these are true

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

Wr i tten Assignme nt for Unit Thr ee

Be sure to refer to this course syllabus for instructions on format, length, and other information on how to complete this assignment. Please answer ONE of the following:

l. Describe the different approaches to the etiology of alcohol dependence (i .e., biological, psychological, sociological).

2. What are the major physiological and psychological effects of opiate drugs, and what are the major opiate withdrawal symptoms?

3. What are marijuana’s long-term effects on the:

a. Respiratory system

b. Cardiovascular system

c. Immune system

d. Reproductive system

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

Mult i p l Ch o i c Q u e stions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) l. The roots of psychopharmacology began in the __ century.

a. 17th

b. 18th

c. 19th

d. 20th

2. The most common method of drug classification in psychiatry is by __ .

a. chemical structure

b. therapeutic usage

c. clinical actions

d. sites of action

3. According to the predominant theory regarding the action of antipsychotics, psychosis is induced by increased levels of __ activity.

a. dopaminergic

b. serotonergic

c. acetylcholinergic

d. norepinephrinergic

4. Methaqualone (Quaaludes) are currently schedule __ drugs.

a. I

b. II

c. III

d. IV

5. One side effect of benzodiazepine use is __ .

a. increased blood pressure

b. drowsiness and motor impairment

c. depression

d. none of these

6. Which of the following is a nonbenzodiazepine anti-anxiety drug?

a. Halcion

b. BuSpar

c. Valium

d. Librium

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

7. Which of the following drug(s) can be used in the treatment of mania by patients who cannot tolerate lithium or do not respond to its effects?

a.

Wellbutrin

b.

Tegretol

c.

Clozaril

d.

all of these

e.

none of these

8. The combination birth control pill contains synthetic __ .

a. estrogen

b. progesterone

c. testosterone

d. both estrogen and progesterone

9. The combination birth control pill acts by __ .

a. preventing ovulation

b. killing sperm

c. aborting the fertilized egg

d. none of these

10. The tendency for anabolic steroids to induce masculine secondary sexual characteris- tics are referred to as

a. androgenizing and anabolic effects

b. anterior effects

c. catabol ic effects

d. none of these

1l. Psychological effects of anabolic steroids include __ .

a. euphoria

b. increased energy levels

c. increased aggressiveness

d. all of these

12. The major ingredient in most over-the-counter sleeping pills is __ .

a. aspirin

b. acetaminophen

c. antihistamines

d. PPA

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

13. Which of the following is true of Salvia divinorum?

a. salvia is a hallucinogenic plant

b. salvia is an herbal drug thought to enhance memory

c. salvia is a anabolic steroid

d. salvia is an ingredient in the combination birth control pill

14. Which of the following is not true of AA?

a. it advocates relinquishing control to a higher power

b. it advocates making direct amends to people harmed by an individuals drinking

c. with it’s emphasis on God, the program is only appropriate for those who accept West- ern religious beliefs

d. nonalcohol ics may not attend closed meeti ngs

15. The Sobriety Priority Program is the philosophy that underlies __ .

a. Women for Sobriety (WFS)

b. Rational Recovery (RR)

c. Secular Organizations for Sobriety (SOS)

d. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)

16. According to the __ model, treatment includes arranging a person’s environment so that nonabuse of psychoactive substances is rei nforced.

a. moral

b. social learning

c. biological

d. sociocultural

17. What is typically the first step in the substance abuse treatment process?

a. selecting the appropriate treatment environment

b. assessment

c. setting treatment goals

d. selecting a counselor

18. __ is an approach in which a person’s withdrawal is monitored by professional staff in a treatment setting, but no drugs are administered.

a. Pharmacotherapy

b. Social detoxification

c. Milieu therapy

d. Aftercare

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

19. Which of the following is an alcohol-sensitizing drug?

a. naltrexone

b. buspirone

c. disulfiram

d. acamprosate

20. An important antidrug drug used to treat opiate dependence is __ I an opiate antagon ist.

a. naltrexone

b. desipramine

c. disulfiram

d. carbimide

21. Substance abuse treatment is basically equivalent to __ prevention.

a. primary

b. secondary

c. tertiary

d. none of these

22. What is the goal of the sociocultural model of prevention?

a. changes in social norms regarding drinking

b. cessation of drinking

c. limiting the availability of alcohol

d. all of these

23. Where are alcohol prevention efforts most likely to be effective?

a. elementary school

b. junior high school

c. high school

d. college

24. __ programs are examples of worksite prevention programs.

a. EAP

b. DARE

c. MADD

d. SOS

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

25. Estimates are that around __ of student drinkers can be considered heavy drink- ers.

a. 5

b. 10

c. 25

d. 40

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Alcohol And Chemical Substance Abuse

Written Assignme nt fo r Unit Fo ur

Be sure to refer to this course syllabus for instructions on format, length, and other information on how to complete this assignment. Please answer ONE of the following:

l. Compare and contrast the effects and uses of barbiturates and benzodiazepines.

In what ways are they similar? Why are benzodiazepines most widely used today?

2. Describe the five models of the causes of alcohol dependence.

3. Briefly describe what is involved in the following:

a. Affect-oriented programs

b. Workplace programs

c. Programs for college students

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