Sleep Drives Metabolite Clearance from the Adult Brain”

Circadian rhythms regulate many aspects of our daily life. They influence when we get hungry, when we need to use the bathroom, and when our internal temperature goes up or down. New research suggests they even influence your susceptibility to disease (Edgar et al., 2016). There are “clocks” in each and every cell in your body, but the master clock is found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in your hypothalamus, and this is synchronized to external factors, the most important being light. The most obvious of these rhythms, and the one that you will focus on this week, is sleep.

Sleep is a universal phenomenon. Research suggests that most adults need about 7–9 hours of sleep per night to be fully rested and functional (National Sleep Foundation, 2015), although studies suggest that the average adult gets about 6.5 or fewer hours of sleep per night (American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2014). Despite this universal need for sleep, we do not really know why we sleep. There are many theories, ranging from REM sleep playing a key role in shaking the fluid inside your eyeballs in order to deliver oxygen to the cells of your eye, helping with memory, and washing cellular debris out of your brain. This question of why we sleep has received a significant amount of research attention. One form of this is the 2015 Flame Challenge, coordinated by Alan Alda and Stony Brook University’s Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science. In this, scientists are challenged to answer the question “What is sleep?” in a way that can be understood by an 11 year old. While we may not understand as much as we would like about sleep, what we do know is that sleep is governed largely by genetic factors, and is “hard wired” into your brain.

In this week’s Assignment, you will first analyze and describe the stages of sleep and then discuss the theories of why we sleep.

References

Edgar, R. S., Stangherlin, A., Nagy, A. D., Nicoll, M. P., Efstathiou, S., O’Neill, J. S., & Reddy, A. B. (2016). Cell autonomous regulation of herpes and influenza virus infection by the circadian clock. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(36), 10085–10090. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1601895113 

National Sleep Foundation. (2015, February 2). National Sleep Foundation recommends new sleep times. Retrieved from https://sleepfoundation.org/media-center/press-release/national-sleep-foundation-recommends-new-sleep-times  

American Academy of Sleep Medicine. (2014, December 11). Sleepless in America [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=5233 

To prepare for this Assignment:

  • Review Chapter 15 in Brain and Behavior, paying attention to stages of sleep and the brain regions associated with the promotion of sleep.
  • Choose ONE of the following articles that applies to the biological basis of sleep:

“Sleep Drives Metabolite Clearance from the Adult Brain”

OR

“Testing Sleep Consolidation in Skill Learning: A Field Study Using an Online Game”

OR

“Impaired memory consolidation in children with obstructive sleep disordered breathing”

OR

You may choose your own article; however, it must be approved by your instructor by Thursday before the assignment is due.

The Assignment (2 pages):

  • Describe the three stages of non-REM sleep and compare non-REM sleep with REM sleep. As part of your response, include the behaviors and patterns of brain activity that characterize each stage of sleep.
  • Explain the role of different brain regions and neurotransmitters on promoting sleep and wakefulness.
  • Summarize your chosen article about the biological basis of sleep in enough detail that your reader will understand what was done in the study and what the results of the study were (similar to the articles you found in BioPsychology.com in the first week).
  • Then, apply the findings of your research to one of the sleep disorders described in Chapter 15 by either proposing a new hypothesis about the cause of one of the disorders or by explaining a new treatment for one of these disorders.

Support your Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You should include in-text citations in the body of your Assignment as well as complete references in APA format at the end of your Assignment.

 
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Explain the relevance of the Critical Assignment to the USO (Implementing a personal and social ethic that results in informed participation in multiple levels of community) by first identifying and repeating language from the USO being documented (Implementing a personal and social ethic that results in informed participation in multiple levels of community).

PLEASE WATCH PROFESSOR’S VIDEO ATTACHED FOR FURTHER EXPLANATION OF INSTRUCTIONS**

Students will write a reflection of their progression and development on each of the CBU University Student Outcomes (USO) and submit supporting evidence (a previous assignment) from the courses completed during their undergraduate work for each reflection. The reflection will address the academic program as a whole and evaluate how the LBS degree requirements have helped them meet both the USO and contributed to their own personal and professional development. The USOs are listed in the document provided.

The following describes the expectations for each reflection assignment:

Completion of Reflection for Evidence of Learning

(250/350+/- words seems to be the average size of a reflective writing)

Step One: Add the Reflective Statement

A reflective writing has an introduction/thesis statement which should identify the USO being documented and the Critical Assignments being posted to address that specific USO.  This opening statement helps to clarify your intentions for the reader and becomes the guide to be used to evaluate your knowledge and understanding of this USO.  

The purpose of your opening/thesis statement is to explain the relevance and significance of the assignment chosen *Education paper* (in relationship to the USOs and your professional development) which you have posted in your portfolio as follows:

1. Relevance: Explain the relevance of the Critical Assignment to the USO (Implementing a personal and social ethic that results in informed participation in multiple levels of community) by first identifying and repeating language from the USO being documented (Implementing a personal and social ethic that results in informed participation in multiple levels of community). 

Example:

To demonstrate my understanding of __ (Implementing a personal and social ethic that results in informed participation in multiple levels of community)_____ and my ability to create learning opportunities that support __(Implementing a personal and social ethic that results in informed participation in multiple levels of community)_, I have included (name the artifact… i.e., Curriculum Unit/writing./project) *Education in the U.S Paper).

2.Significance:Explain the significance of the critical assignment (aspects of the assignment as evidence of your development as a professional educator, both over all and in reference to a particular USO. Provide two or three areas of significant relevance to the USO you are documenting (Implementing a personal and social ethic that results in informed participation in multiple levels of community) which you can support with the evidence in your artifact or (paper).

Example:

“My (name or reference your critical assignment or selected artifact… ex. Education paper)…….” follow here with an explanation of how your assignment demonstrates your competence. Proceed to provide examples of your competence in the elements of the standard that you are addressing (Implementing a personal and social ethic that results in informed participation in multiple levels of community) by providing specific examples from within your assignment (paper on Education). Be very specific and intentional about your examples.

First, through the (choose something specific in the paper)I can demonstrate my (use/knowledge of/ USO words that are relevant) (Implementing a personal and social ethic that results in informed participation in multiple levels of community).Continue with your reflective statement.

This artifact also demonstrates my ability to  ____(state specific section of standard) (Implementing a personal and social ethic that results in informed participation in multiple levels of community)________ which is necessary for (state benefit…e x. ELD learners to succeed in learning___??) .

Another good example of (state specific part ofUSO) (Implementing a personal and social ethic that results in informed participation in multiple levels of community) appears within the (i.e., second Direct Instructionlesson plan) where students are asked to ______________. This type of activity brings students to (ex. develop higher order thinking skills)and _______________ etc.

Finally, ________(Add what is necessary to demonstrate your proficiency with this standard in the rest of the paragraph.)

3. Link to Theory:(Continue your reflection with a link to a theory/theology)

Explain the theoretical links that support your learning and professional practices through your artifacts. (Example: Mention the learning theory, assessment theory, student engagement in learning, curriculum theory, diversity beliefs, theological/world view positions that support your thinking/learning.) **See professor’s video for examples) Theoretical links can be woven through the paragraph or added at the end according to what works best for your text.

4. Professional Actions: (*DO NOT FORGET TO* Conclude your reflection with application to your future professional development.)

*Important* What will you do now that you have this information or deeper understanding/learning as *a future teacher*? Mention your next actions in this specific area of professional development. This section concludes your reflection.

Step Two: Self Analysis and Reflection Checklist…Simply ask yourself questions about your reflective statement to insure it is accurate and complete.

Does your reflection…????

· Discuss how the artifact(s) supports the USO or specific aspects of the USO standard?

· Establish relevance to the USO standard?

· Reveal what you know about the subject mater?

· Demonstrate integration of theory into practice?

· Reveal how the artifact demonstrates the notion that you (the teacher) can make meaningful learning opportunities for students?

· Does this section discuss the outcomes of the teacher’s implementation of the learning standard being documented?

· Connect to theory in a meaningful manner?

· Provide a view of how your learning will take you to the next step of your professional development?

************************************************************************

-Professor’s video explaining how to write narrative click here……. here is the Week 2 Essential Video

-Education Paper to use as the “artifact” in reflection is attached.

-University Student Outcomes (USO) explanation attached.

 
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The recent crash of the Boeing 737 Max 8 operated by the Ethiopian Airlines and the clear similarity with the Indonesian crash is still hot news.

Contemporary issues criterion

The recent crash of the Boeing 737 Max 8 operated by the  Ethiopian Airlines and the clear similarity with the Indonesian crash is still hot news. 

Part 1: 

Explain your understanding of the underlying cause of both crashes.

(1-page max.)25 points

Part II:

The FAA is the Federal body charged with certifying that all commercial planes built in the US are air and safety worthy. But FAA turns around and contracts Boeing – an aircraft manufacturer to certify the planes they build. Some argue against this FAA approach and some argue for technical reasons in favor of the approach. Provide your argument for and against the FAA approach contracting Boeing to do their aircraft safety checks

(1-page max) – 25 points

Life Long Learning Criterion

Part III

Clearly construct your own statement of “Words of Wisdom” with regard to Lifelong Learning.  

The statement must be unique to you and must not appear on google.  One sentence only

Grading Scheme  

Citations/References – on separate page    

Parts I, II and III must NOTbe merged as a single paper. The must be on separate pages.

 
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In the discussion forums this week we learned about the use of screening assessments as a tool to indicate a potential concern about a child’s learning and development.

Curriculum-Linked Assessment

In the discussion forums this week we learned about the use of screening assessments as a tool to indicate a potential concern about a child’s learning and development. After administering screening assessments, a typical next step is to evaluate any areas of concern that were indicated on the screener. One way in which this is accomplished is through creating learning activities and curriculum linked assessments. “If every intentional activity that goes on in education is part of the curriculum, then these activities should be assessed to determine if children are making progress in the curriculum” (text, section 7.1) Doing this allows for opportunities to assess and evaluate the child’s performance to see where his/her true areas of need are and to determine what further steps might need to be taken. Your assignment this week will give you the opportunity to put the process we just discussed into action. There are four steps to your assignment.

Preview the document

Step 1 (1.5 points): Choose one child from the example document, “Developmental Checklist Birth to Five.” After choosing a child, write an analysis of the child. Your analysis should include the following:

  • Which checklist you are using
  • The age of the child
  • The information that you have learned from the checklist about the child’s strengths and developmental concerns you would have about this child that includes at least three different developmental areas from the checklist.

Step 2 (3 points): Create a learning objective from the child. Using this child and the domain of your choice from The Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. domains, choose a learning standard that relates to an area of need for the child you choose based on their checklist. Create a clear learning objective that aligns with this standard, which you can use to measure the child’s performance on the assessment you will create in Step 3.

For example, if the screener indicated that the child struggles with identifying shapes, you would choose to focus on a shape skill from the Mathematics Knowledge and Skills Domain. Your objective might be the child will be able to identify shapes correctly at least 80% of the time. Another example would be if the screener indicates that the child struggles to cooperate with others, you would choose a cooperation skill from the Social and Emotional Development Domain. Your objective for this might be the child will be cooperating when playing with a partner at least 90% of the time.

If you need assistance with how to create effective learning objectives, please view the Objectives section of the ECE/CD Lesson Planning Handbook that is available with your Constellation materials for the course or review section 7.1 of the course text. In your assignment include the following:

  • The learning standard you chose from the The Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework
  • A clear and measurable learning objective
  • A rationale that explains why you developed the learning objective you did and how it aligns with your learning standard. Make sure to include evidence from the checklist to support your choice.

Step 3 (4 points): Develop a curriculum linked developmentally appropriate assessment that assesses your learning objective. You will find helpful guidelines for creating your assessment in Chapter 7 of the text. Also, remember as is stated in section 7.3 of your text, not all assessments are paper and pencil tests so feel free to be creative with your assessment. For example, if you are creating an assessment on shapes you might have the children draw the names of the shapes you say, identify examples of the shapes in the room, or match a picture of the shape to its name. In your assignment include the following:

  • An example of or a detailed description of your assessment, along with specifically how you will document the child’s progress. For a more detailed explanation, please review the week three guidance.

Step 4 (2 points): Provide a rationale for your curriculum linked assessment. In your rationale, including the following:

  • Explain how you your curriculum linked assessment aligns with the guidelines for teacher developed assessments shared in section 7.3 of the course text.
  • Discuss how the level of learning in your objective matches the level of learning on the assessment
  • Explain how you will use the results from this assessment to differentiate, accommodate or modify, instruction and intervention. Utilize information from section 7.1- Curriculum Linked to Individual Learning from your course text to support your explanation.

Written Expectations

  • Content Development (.25 points): Use appropriate and pertinent content to address ideas within the context of the discipline, shaping the work as a whole.
  • Context and Purpose for Writing (.25 points): Demonstrates application of organization and presentation of content. The writing is should be clear and easy to understand.
  • Assignment Length (.25 points): Your written paper must be at least five pages (not including title and reference page).
  • Title Page: Inclusion of a separate title page with the following:

Title of presentationStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submitted

  • Source Requirement (0.25 Points): Reference one scholarly sources in addition to the text.

APA Formatting (0.25 Points): Use APA formatting consistently throughout the assignment, which includes citations in the body of the assignment, the title page, and references list as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Syntax and Mechanics (0.25 Points): Display meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar.

Next Steps: Review and Submit the Assignment

Review your assignment with the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. to ensure you have achieved the distinguished levels of performance for each criterion and submit in Waypoint for evaluation no later than Day 7.

https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/elof-ohs-framework.pdf

Description

Total Possible Score: 12.00

Analyzes One Child and Describes at Least Three Different Developmental Areas That Are Covered

Total: 1.50

Distinguished – Comprehensively analyzes one child from the checklist, including the child’s age, strengths, and developmental concerns. Thoroughly describes at least three different developmental areas. The analysis and description are well-supported by scholarly sources.

Proficient – Analyzes one child from the checklist, including the child’s age, strengths, and developmental concerns. Describes at least three different developmental areas. The analysis and description are supported by scholarly sources but may be slightly underdeveloped.

Basic – Partially analyzes two one child from the checklist, including the child’s age, strengths, and developmental concerns. Briefly describes at least two different developmental areas. The analysis or description is not sufficiently supported by scholarly sources and/or is underdeveloped.

Below Expectations – Minimally analyzes one child from the checklist, including the child’s age, strengths, and developmental concerns. Insufficiently describes at least one developmental area. The analysis and the description are not supported by scholarly sources and/or are significantly underdeveloped.

Non-Performance – The analysis of a child and the description of at least three developmental areas is either nonexistent or lack the components described in the assignment instructions.

Creates a Clear and Measurable Learning Objective That Aligns With a Standard

Total: 1.00

Distinguished – Creates a clear and measurable learning objective that aligns with a standard from the Head Start Early Learning Framework. 

Proficient – Creates a mostly clear and measurable learning objective that aligns with a standard from the Head Start Early Learning Framework. The objective is slightly underdeveloped.

Basic – Creates a learning objective that aligns with a standard from the Head Start Early Learning Framework. The objective is not clear and/or measurable.

Below Expectations – Attempts to create a learning objective that aligns to the Head Start Early Learning Framework; however, the objective is not clear or measurable and is not aligned to a standard.

Non-Performance – The creation of a clear and measurable learning objective is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions.

Includes a Rationale That Explains Why The Learning Objective Was Developed and How It Aligns With the Learning Standard 

Total: 2.00

Distinguished – Includes a comprehensive rationale that thoroughly explains why the learning objective was developed including how it aligns with a learning standard. The rationale is well-supported by evidence from the checklist.

Proficient – Includes a rationale that explains why the learning objective was developed including how it aligns with a learning standard. The rationale is supported by evidence from the checklist but is slightly underdeveloped.

Basic – Includes a rationale that briefly explains why the learning objective was developed including how it aligns with a learning standard. The rationale is not sufficiently supported by evidence from the checklist and/or is underdeveloped.

Below Expectations – Attempts to include a rationale that explains why the learning objective was developed including how it aligns with a learning standard; however, the rationale is significantly underdeveloped and is not supported by evidence from the checklist.

Non-Performance – The rationale that explains why the learning objective was developed including how it aligns with a learning standard is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions.

Develops An Assessment That Assesses the Learning Objective, Including How to Document Student Progress

Total: 4.00

Distinguished – Develops a comprehensive curriculum linked developmentally appropriate assessment that aligns with the learning objective and includes how to document student progress. 

Proficient – Develops a curriculum linked developmentally appropriate assessment that aligns with the learning objective and includes how to document student progress. The description of how to document progress is slightly underdeveloped.

Basic – Develops a curriculum linked developmentally appropriate assessment that somewhat aligns with the learning objective and includes how to document student progress. The description of how to document progress is underdeveloped.

Below Expectations – Attempts to develop a curriculum linked developmentally appropriate assessment. The assessment does not align with the learning objective and/or information about how to document student progress is not included.

Non-Performance – The development of an assessment that assesses your learning objective is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions.

Includes a Rationale That Explains the Curriculum Linked Assessment

Total: 2.00

Distinguished – Includes a comprehensive rationale that thoroughly explains the curriculum linked assessment by addressing all three rationale questions.

Proficient – Includes a rationale that explains the curriculum linked assessment by addressing all three rationale questions. The rationale is slightly underdeveloped.

Basic – Includes a rationale that briefly explains the curriculum linked assessment by addressing at least two rationale questions. The rationale is underdeveloped and/or not all questions are addressed.

Below Expectations – Attempts to include a rationale that explains the curriculum linked assessment; however, the rationale is significantly underdeveloped. and/or not all questions are answered.

Non-Performance – The rationale that explains the curriculum linked assessment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions.

Written Communication: Content Development

Total: 0.25

Distinguished – Uses appropriate, pertinent, and persuasive content to discover and develop sophisticated ideas within the context of the discipline, shaping the work as a whole.

Proficient – Uses appropriate and pertinent content to discover ideas within the context of the discipline, shaping the work as a whole.

Basic – Uses appropriate and pertinent content but does not apply it toward discovering or developing ideas. Overall, content assists in shaping the written work.

Below Expectations – Uses content, though it may be unrelated or inappropriate to the topic. Content does not contribute toward the development of the written work and may distract the reader from its purpose.

Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.

Written Communication: Context of and Purpose for Writing

Total: 0.25

Distinguished – Demonstrates methodical application of organization and presentation of content. The purpose of the writing is evident and easy to understand. Summaries, quotes, and/or paraphrases fit naturally into the sentences and paragraphs. Paper flows smoothly.

Proficient – Demonstrates sufficient application of organization and presentation of content. The purpose of the writing is, for the most part, clear and easy to understand. There are some problems with the blending of summaries, paraphrases, and quotes. Paper flows somewhat smoothly.

Basic – Demonstrates a limited understanding of organization and presentation of content in written work. The purpose of the writing is somewhat evident but may not be integrated throughout the assignment. There are many problems with the blending of summaries, paraphrases, and quotes. Paper does not flow smoothly in all sections.

Below Expectations – Organization and presentation of content are extremely limited. The purpose of the writing is unclear. There is little or no blending of summaries, paraphrases, and quotes. Paper does not flow smoothly when read.

Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.

Written Communication: Control of Syntax and Mechanics

Total: 0.25

Distinguished – Displays meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written work contains no errors and is very easy to understand.

Proficient – Displays comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written work contains only a few minor errors and is mostly easy to understand.

Basic – Displays basic comprehension of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written work contains a few errors which may slightly distract the reader.

Below Expectations – Fails to display basic comprehension of syntax or mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written work contains major errors which distract the reader.

Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.

Written Communication: APA Formatting

Total: 0.25

Distinguished – Accurately uses APA formatting consistently throughout the paper, title page, and reference page.

Proficient – Exhibits APA formatting throughout the paper. However, layout contains a few minor errors. 

Basic – Exhibits limited knowledge of APA formatting throughout the paper. However, layout does not meet all APA requirements. 

Below Expectations – Fails to exhibit basic knowledge of APA formatting. There are frequent errors, making the layout difficult to distinguish as APA.

Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.

Written Communication: Page Requirement

Total: 0.25

Distinguished – The length of the paper is equivalent to the required number of correctly formatted pages. 

Proficient – The length of the paper is nearly equivalent to the required number of correctly formatted pages. 

Basic – The length of the paper is equivalent to at least three quarters of the required number of correctly formatted pages.

Below Expectations – The length of the paper is equivalent to at least one half of the required number of correctly formatted pages.   

Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.

Written Communication: Resource Requirement

Total: 0.25

Distinguished – Uses more than the required number of scholarly sources, providing compelling evidence to support ideas. All sources on the reference page are used and cited correctly within the body of the assignment.

Proficient – Uses the required number of scholarly sources to support ideas. All sources on the reference page are used and cited correctly within the body of the assignment.

Basic – Uses less than the required number of sources to support ideas. Some sources may not be scholarly. Most sources on the reference page are used within the body of the assignment. Citations may not be formatted correctly.

Below Expectations – Uses an inadequate number of sources that provide little or no support for ideas. Sources used may not be scholarly. Most sources on the reference page are not used within the body of the assignment. Citations are not formatted correctly.

Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.

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