Chapter 8: Microbial Genetics and Genetic Engineering Reading Assignment: Chapter 8 1. Describe the structure and function of DNA in the microbial cell.

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Chapter 8: Microbial Genetics and Genetic Engineering Reading Assignment: Chapter 8 1. Describe the structure and function of DNA in the microbial cell. List the chemical components of DNA including the nitrogen bases and the role of histones. 2. Define the following: genome, chromosome, gene, genotype, phenotype, and palindrome. 3. Describe the process of DNA replication in microbes. Explain the term semi-conservative replication 4. Describe the steps in protein synthesis. Compare and contrast transcription and translation. Describe the roles of rRNA, MRNA, and tRNA. Be able to transcribe and translate a DNA sequence into the appropriate amino acid sequence. 6. Explain the differences between an inducible operon and a repressible operon. Give examples of each. 7. Explain the key parts of the typical bacterial operon and how the operon regulates gene expression. * Explain the differences between the 4 major methods of genetic transfer in bacteria: Conjugation, Transformation, Transduction, Transposition Define the terms mutation, mutant strain, and wild type. 10. Explain the differences between the following types of mutations: induced, random, point, deletion, frame shift, insertion, inversion, substitution, and back-mutation. 11. Explain what the AMES TEST is used for. Explain the difference between a carcinogen, mutagen, and teratogen. 12. Describe the following tools and structures important to Genetic Engineering: plasmids, restriction endonucleases, palindromes, sticky-end and blunt-end endonucleases, ligase. Give some examples and discuss how endonucleases work. 13. Explain how the technique of gel electrophoresis works. What are gels made of? 14. Explain what a RFLP is. Discuss how the size of DNA fragments is determined using gel electrophoresis and a DNA marker (ladder). is Explain how they are

 
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