B.A.S program reflection and experiences
August 18, 2019
BCOM275 Week 1 Individual Assignment Exercise 1.1
August 18, 2019

history in the middle east

As a sultan you have the right to initiate fights against non-muslims (holy war) and against muslims to Illuminate other competition and leaders “to protect their land”

ottomans as ruling institution

1 dynastic state

-principles of legitimacy for sultans

• succession

• war leader

• holy war leader

• genealogical links to ought khan (legitimacy for relations with?against other Turkish groups in Anatolia)

• genealogical links to prophet mohd (genealogical spiritual legitimacy)

• 1453 conquest of Constantinople (caesars) they claimed the throne from the caesar and claimed the title

• khalifas (after 1424?) خلافة

Any sultan has to have a link to ought khan to be able to rule.

2- recruitment and personnel

Females had zero role in ruling

Male relatives were sent to different provinces to gain experience from provinces

After 1603 the sons were secluded in the imperial house hold

• Slaves were the main personnel originally non muslims that converted + tax from christians

Genecaries, administratives.

Their loyalties lay to the sultan only

3- Millet system

• Millet: non-muslim religious community

Greek Orthodox, jewish, Armenian orthodox

Each community: headed by religious leader based in Istanbul

They were given religious automony

• Leader: responsible to the sultan for his community’s taxes

• decentralized – indirect

• You manage your own affairs – you handle your own business

• Their only responsibility is to pay taxes.

4- The fief system

• Land reward: Timar (whatever was on the land came with it)

• Expectations: if not met it can be taken away

⁃ Timar holder collects revenues generated from land as payments for services

⁃ maintain. Law, order, peace on timar lands

⁃ Provide cavalry (horses armors clothes etc..) and everything else when called by the sultan

• Several timar: sancak

• Also indirect rule and decentralized.

The start of decline: the ottomans 1683

1- defeat at Vienna: 1863

2- the holy league war: 1683-1699

3- Russia – ottomans war: 1711-1713


5- Nader shah (Iranian war) :1730-1746

6- austro Russian ottoman war: 1736-1739

7- russo – ottoman war: 1768-1774 1787-1792


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