a comparison of at least two APRN board of nursing regulations in your state/region with those of at least one other state/region. Describe how they may differ. Be specific and provide examples. Then, explain how the regulations you selected may apply to Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) who have legal authority to practice within the full scope of their education and experience. Provide at least one example of how APRNs may adhere to the two regulations you selected.

Title: A Comparative Analysis of APRN Board of Nursing Regulations in Different States/Regions: Implications for Advanced Practice Registered Nurses


Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) play a vital role in healthcare delivery, providing high-quality care to patients across various healthcare settings. As APRNs’ responsibilities and scope of practice expand, understanding the regulatory frameworks governing their practice becomes crucial. This paper aims to compare APRN board of nursing regulations in one state/region with those of another state/region. The objective is to identify and discuss the similarities and differences in these regulations, and their implications for APRNs who have legal authority to practice within the full scope of their education and experience.

Comparison of APRN Board of Nursing Regulations:

In the United States, each state has its own board of nursing regulations that define the scope of practice for APRNs. Pennsylvania and New York will be used as examples to compare the similarities and differences in their regulations with a focus on nurse practitioners (NPs) and certified nurse-midwives (CNMs).

1. Prescriptive Authority:

Prescriptive authority allows APRNs to independently prescribe medications and controlled substances. In Pennsylvania, APRNs with full practice authority have the authority to prescribe medications and controlled substances. However, the state requires NPs to practice under a collaborative agreement with a physician for the first three years of practice or when prescribing opioids for acute or chronic pain management. This collaborative agreement is not required for CNMs, as their autonomy in prescribing medications is not contingent upon a collaborative agreement.

On the other hand, New York allows NPs and CNMs to practice with full prescriptive authority, including prescribing medications, controlled substances, and medical devices, without any collaborative agreement or supervision from a physician. This distinction indicates that New York grants more autonomy to APRNs in terms of prescribing authority compared to Pennsylvania.

2. Independent Practice:

Independent practice refers to APRNs’ ability to provide healthcare services without the need for collaboration or supervision by a physician. In Pennsylvania, NPs and CNMs who have completed a specified number of years of clinical experience and meet additional requirements can obtain full practice authority (FPA). FPA allows APRNs to practice independently and without any physician collaboration. However, for CNMs, physicians must be available for collaboration and consultation when necessary.

In contrast, New York grants full practice authority to NPs and CNMs without any physician collaboration or supervision requirements. This means that APRNs in New York have more autonomy and independence in providing healthcare services compared to their counterparts in Pennsylvania.

Implications for APRNs’ Scope of Practice:

The identified differences in APRN board of nursing regulations can have significant implications for APRNs’ scope of practice and their ability to deliver patient care.

Prescriptive Authority:

The Pennsylvania regulation imposing a collaborative agreement for NPs during the initial three years of practice or when prescribing opioids for pain management ensures a gradual transition into independent practice. This approach aims to enhance patient safety by providing structured oversight during the early stages of practice while allowing NPs to gradually develop their prescribing skills. However, the requirement of a collaborative agreement may introduce administrative burdens and potential barriers for NPs seeking full independence in their practice.

In contrast, New York’s regulation granting NPs and CNMs full prescriptive authority without a collaborative agreement promotes unrestricted autonomy and may improve access to medication for patients. This regulation recognizes the expertise and competency of APRNs in medication management, allowing them to independently meet the needs of patients without unnecessary delays or administrative hurdles.

Independent Practice:

Pennsylvania’s requirement for CNMs to have physician collaboration and consultation available acknowledges the unique nature of midwifery practice, which often involves complex obstetric and gynecological cases. The collaboration requirement ensures that CNMs have access to timely consultation from physicians in situations where medical complexity arises, thereby enhancing the overall quality of care provided to women and newborns.

In New York, APRNs are granted full practice authority without any physician collaboration or consultation requirements. This allows APRNs to practice independently and respond to the healthcare needs of patients promptly. The absence of collaborative requirements recognizes the advanced education and expertise of APRNs, empowering them to function as primary care providers.


The comparison of APRN board of nursing regulations in Pennsylvania and New York reveals notable differences in prescriptive authority and independent practice. These regulations have specific implications for APRNs’ scope of practice, prescribing authority, and ability to provide independent patient care. Understanding these regulations is essential for APRNs, as they navigate their roles and responsibilities within the healthcare system. By adhering to these regulations, APRNs can effectively contribute to the delivery of safe and high-quality care that aligns with their advanced educational preparation and professional competencies.

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