Based on viewing the Johnson & Johnson video, what are your thoughts about health care inequalities and the need for continuing reform? (Share at least 2 points of view.) Submission Instructions: Your initial post should be at least 350 words, formatted and cited in current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources.

Title: Health Care Inequalities and the Urgency for Continuing Reform

Health care inequalities persist as a pressing issue in societies worldwide, encompassing variations in access to care, quality of service, and health outcomes among different populations. The Johnson & Johnson video profoundly highlights the urgent need for continuing reform to address these disparities. This essay will offer two distinct perspectives on health care inequalities and discuss why ongoing reform is imperative. The analysis will draw upon academic sources to support the viewpoints presented.

Perspective 1: Socioeconomic Disparities
Arguably, one of the most prevalent factors fueling health care inequalities is socioeconomic status. Research consistently shows that individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to face barriers in accessing quality health care services. Socioeconomic disparities influence various aspects of healthcare, including insurance coverage, healthcare utilization, and health outcomes (Ruhm, 2018).

Firstly, lower-income individuals often lack adequate health insurance coverage, which affects their ability to access timely and appropriate care. Individuals without insurance are more likely to delay seeking medical treatment, resulting in the exacerbation of health conditions and poorer health outcomes (Tefera et al., 2019). Reform efforts should aim to expand insurance coverage and remove financial barriers to ensure equitable access to healthcare services.

Secondly, socioeconomic disparities contribute to unequal healthcare utilization rates. Individuals with higher incomes generally have greater access to preventive care, such as vaccinations and screenings, resulting in early detection and timely treatment of diseases. In contrast, those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds face barriers such as limited financial resources, transportation challenges, and lack of information, leading to lower healthcare utilization rates (Ruhm, 2018). Reform initiatives should focus on improving healthcare delivery in underserved areas, increasing health literacy, and implementing targeted outreach programs to bridge this gap.

Thirdly, socioeconomic disparities are a crucial determinant of health outcomes. Individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds often experience a disproportionate burden of chronic diseases, higher mortality rates, and lower life expectancies (Tefera et al., 2019). This inequality is multifaceted, driven by various factors, including limited access to nutritious food, higher prevalence of environmental hazards, and elevated stress levels due to economic challenges (Ruhm, 2018). Reform measures should include policies that address social determinants of health, such as improving housing conditions, enhancing neighborhood safety, and expanding public health programs aiming to improve health equity.

Perspective 2: Racial and Ethnic Disparities
Another critical dimension of health care inequalities is the persistence of racial and ethnic disparities. Extensive evidence reveals disparities in access to care, quality of care, and health outcomes among racial and ethnic minority populations (Artiga & Hinton, 2019).

First and foremost, marginalized racial and ethnic minority groups often face structural barriers in accessing health care services. These barriers can include lack of health insurance coverage, limited availability of culturally competent providers, language barriers, and discrimination within healthcare systems (Artiga & Hinton, 2019). Ongoing reform should prioritize the reduction and elimination of these structural barriers to promote equitable access to healthcare for all population groups.

Moreover, racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to receive lower-quality care, leading to disparate health outcomes. Studies consistently document differences in treatment patterns, medical procedures, and pain management among racially diverse populations (Artiga & Hinton, 2019). Reform efforts should focus on implementing policies that promote equity in healthcare delivery, such as cultural competency training for healthcare providers, anti-bias initiatives, and accountability mechanisms to ensure equal treatment for racially and ethnically diverse patients.

Additionally, racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes are persistently observed across various diseases and health conditions. For instance, racially diverse communities face higher rates of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain types of cancer (Artiga & Hinton, 2019). Understanding and addressing the complex factors contributing to these disparities, including social determinants of health, systemic racism, and health behaviors, should be key areas of focus for reform initiatives.

The Johnson & Johnson video provides valuable insights into health care inequalities, emphasizing the pressing need for continuing reform. This essay has presented two distinct perspectives on health care inequalities, focusing on socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities. Ongoing reform efforts must be multifaceted, addressing the systemic and structural factors perpetuating these inequalities to achieve equitable access, quality care, and improved health outcomes for all individuals.

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