The instrument selected for addressing the research question is the “Perceived Stress Scale” (PSS). The PSS measures the perception of stress in an individual and has been widely used in research studies and clinical settings. The level of measurement for the PSS is interval.
The PSS utilizes a Likert-type scale, which is a commonly used method for measuring attitudes, opinions, and perceptions. The Likert scale consists of a set of statements or items that individuals are asked to rate based on their level of agreement or disagreement. In the case of the PSS, respondents are presented with statements related to their perceived stress levels and are asked to rate each statement on a 5-point scale, ranging from 0 (never) to 4 (very often).
The Likert scale used in the PSS allows for a quantitative analysis of the perceived stress levels, as individual responses can be assigned numerical values and aggregated to obtain a total score. This scale provides a framework for measuring stress by assessing how frequently individuals experience certain thoughts and feelings related to stress. The PSS includes statements such as “In the last month, how often have you felt nervous or stressed?” and “In the last month, how often have you felt that things were going your way?”
In terms of data collection procedures, the PSS can be administered through self-report questionnaires or in interview settings. Self-report questionnaires involve individuals completing the survey on their own, while interviews involve a trained interviewer administering the questionnaire and recording the responses. Both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages.
Self-report questionnaires offer a cost-effective and efficient way to collect data, as they can be easily administered to large samples and do not require direct interaction between researchers and participants. The PSS questionnaire can be administered via paper-and-pencil format or electronically, depending on the preferences and convenience of the participants. This method allows for standardized administration of the instrument, ensuring consistency in data collection.
On the other hand, interviews provide an opportunity for clarification and probing, allowing the interviewer to obtain more detailed information and better understand individual responses. This method may be particularly useful when dealing with a population that may have difficulty understanding or completing the questionnaire, such as individuals with low literacy levels or cognitive impairments. However, interviews can be time-consuming and resource-intensive, especially when working with a large sample size.
In the proposal, the data collection procedures will be clearly outlined, including the method of administration (self-report questionnaires or interviews), the mode of data collection (paper-and-pencil or electronic), and any additional steps taken to ensure data quality and participant confidentiality. The proposal will also provide details on the planned sample size, sampling strategy, and any necessary considerations for potential biases or limitations in data collection.
Overall, the use of the Perceived Stress Scale offers a standardized and reliable measure for assessing individuals’ perception of stress. By utilizing a Likert-type scale, researchers can quantitatively analyze the data collected and draw meaningful conclusions regarding stress levels. The data collection procedures, whether through self-report questionnaires or interviews, will be adequately described in the proposal to ensure transparency and reproducibility of the study.