In an essay, outline the major categories of the BIPOLAR DISORDER  as detailed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (We will go over this information in week 2). Paper should be in APA format. Also be sure to cite and reference at least two sources of information. Your paper should be 4-6 pages long, in addition to a title page and a reference page. Categories can be found on page 488 of your text and we will also discuss in class.

Title: Major Categories of Bipolar Disorder: An Overview of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association

Bipolar disorder is a complex psychiatric condition characterized by recurrent episodes of manic and depressive symptoms. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), is widely recognized as the authoritative guide for diagnosing mental disorders. In this essay, we will outline the major categories of bipolar disorder as detailed in the DSM. The paper will adhere to the APA format and will include a review of relevant sources to support the discussion.

Overview of Bipolar Disorder:
Bipolar disorder is a chronic illness that affects approximately 2.6% of adults worldwide. It is marked by alternating episodes of mania and depression, which significantly impair an individual’s daily functioning and quality of life. The DSM provides a comprehensive framework for diagnosing bipolar disorder and organizing its different manifestations into distinct categories.

Major Categories of Bipolar Disorder:

1. Bipolar I Disorder:
Bipolar I disorder is characterized by the presence of one or more manic or mixed episodes, often accompanied by major depressive episodes. Manic episodes involve a distinct period of abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, lasting at least one week. During these episodes, individuals may experience inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, excessive energy, and engaging in goal-directed activities with high potential for negative consequences.

2. Bipolar II Disorder:
Bipolar II disorder is diagnosed when individuals experience one or more major depressive episodes alongside hypomanic episodes. Hypomania is a less severe form of mania characterized by similar symptoms but with less intensity and impact on functioning. Hypomanic episodes last at least four consecutive days and don’t impair social or occupational functioning to the extent observed in manic episodes.

3. Cyclothymic Disorder:
Cyclothymic disorder is a milder form of bipolar disorder characterized by chronic fluctuating mood disturbances. Individuals with cyclothymic disorder experience numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms and depressive symptoms, which are not severe enough to meet the duration and intensity criteria of a full manic or major depressive episode. These chronic mood fluctuations persist for at least two years in adults (one year in adolescents) without a symptom-free period exceeding two months.

4. Other Specified Bipolar and Related Disorders:
This category includes disorders with bipolar-like features that do not meet the criteria for the aforementioned categories. Examples include the presence of recurrent, brief, and subsyndromal hypomanic symptoms, as well as major depressive episodes that co-occur with chronic mood elevation (e.g., melancholic features).

5. Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders:
The unspecified category is reserved for disorders that have bipolar-like features but do not fit the specific criteria for any of the other bipolar disorder subtypes. This may be due to a lack of information or inadequate assessment.

Bipolar disorder encompasses a spectrum of mood disorders characterized by the occurrence of manic, hypomanic, and depressive episodes. The DSM aims to provide a systematic approach to diagnosing and classifying bipolar disorder by categorizing it into distinct types and subtypes. By delineating the major categories, clinicians can better identify and tailor treatment strategies to individual patients.

It is important to note that accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder relies heavily on a comprehensive assessment of the individual’s symptomatology and history. The DSM serves as a guide, but clinical judgment and expertise are crucial in making an accurate diagnosis. Additionally, bipolar disorder often manifests differently in each individual, making it imperative to consider the unique presentation and symptom patterns.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). Bipolar disorder. Retrieved from

Note: Please consult the APA manual and relevant style guides for formatting the in-text citations and references according to APA guidelines.

Do you need us to help you on this or any other assignment?

Make an Order Now