List 3 Vitamins and complete them below: a) Indications b) Mechanism of action c) What to monitor d) Patient variables e) Side effects f) Adverse effects g) Teaching –  Be Concise –  Formatted and cited in current APA 7 – Use 2 academic sources. Not older than 5 years – Not Websites are allowed. – Plagiarism is NOT allowed. Turnitin is ON

Vitamins are essential micronutrients required for various physiological functions in the human body. They play crucial roles in maintaining normal bodily processes and preventing deficiencies. In this assignment, we will discuss three vitamins, their indications, mechanism of action, what to monitor, patient variables, side effects, adverse effects, and teaching strategies.

Vitamin A:
a) Indications: Vitamin A is indicated for the treatment and prevention of vitamin A deficiency. It is also used for the management of certain skin conditions, such as acne and psoriasis.

b) Mechanism of action: Vitamin A functions as a retinoid and regulates gene expression involved in cellular growth, differentiation, and immune function. It plays a role in maintaining the integrity of epithelial tissues, vision, and reproduction.

c) What to monitor: When administering vitamin A, it is important to monitor serum retinol levels to ensure adequate supplementation. Liver function tests should also be monitored regularly.

d) Patient variables: Patients with liver disease may have impaired vitamin A metabolism and should be closely monitored while receiving supplementation. Additionally, pregnant women and individuals with malabsorption conditions (e.g., cystic fibrosis, celiac disease) may require higher doses of vitamin A.

e) Side effects: Common side effects of vitamin A supplementation include nausea, vomiting, headache, and dizziness. High doses of vitamin A can lead to hypervitaminosis A, characterized by symptoms such as dry skin, hair loss, and bone pain.

f) Adverse effects: Prolonged and excessive intake of vitamin A can cause serious adverse effects, including liver damage, osteoporosis, and teratogenicity. It is essential to follow recommended dosage guidelines to avoid these adverse events.

g) Teaching: Patient education regarding vitamin A supplementation should focus on the importance of adherence to the prescribed dosage. Patients should be advised to avoid excessive consumption of foods rich in vitamin A, such as liver, to prevent toxicity. It is also crucial to inform pregnant women about the potential teratogenic effects of high-dose vitamin A.

Vitamin D:
a) Indications: Vitamin D is indicated for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency and the management of conditions such as osteoporosis and hypocalcemia.

b) Mechanism of action: Vitamin D plays a vital role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis. It promotes intestinal absorption of these minerals, regulates their levels in the blood, and facilitates their deposition in bones.

c) What to monitor: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels should be monitored to assess vitamin D status. Calcium and phosphate levels should also be monitored periodically to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementation.

d) Patient variables: Patients with malabsorption syndromes, obesity, or decreased sun exposure may require higher doses of vitamin D. Additionally, elderly individuals and those with limited mobility have a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency.

e) Side effects: Most people tolerate vitamin D supplementation well. However, some individuals may experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, constipation, or diarrhea. Hypercalcemia, characterized by symptoms like increased thirst, frequent urination, and confusion, can occur with very high doses of vitamin D.

f) Adverse effects: Excessive intake of vitamin D can lead to vitamin D toxicity, causing hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. Prolonged hypercalcemia may result in vascular and tissue calcification, kidney stones, and renal impairment.

g) Teaching: Patients should be educated regarding the importance of sunlight exposure, as it is a natural source of vitamin D synthesis in the skin. They should also understand the proper use of vitamin D supplements, including dosage and potential side effects. Individuals taking medications that interact with vitamin D, such as certain anticonvulsants and glucocorticoids, should be instructed to consult their healthcare provider before initiating supplementation.

Vitamin B12:
a) Indications: Vitamin B12 is indicated for the treatment and prevention of vitamin B12 deficiency, particularly in individuals with pernicious anemia or conditions causing malabsorption.

b) Mechanism of action: Vitamin B12 is involved in the synthesis of DNA, red blood cell production, and maintaining the integrity of the nervous system. It acts as a coenzyme in various metabolic reactions.

c) What to monitor: Serum vitamin B12 levels and complete blood counts should be monitored to assess vitamin B12 status and evaluate the response to supplementation.

d) Patient variables: Patients with conditions affecting the absorption of vitamin B12, such as Crohn’s disease or gastric bypass surgery, may require higher doses of vitamin B12. Vegetarians and older adults are at higher risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.

e) Side effects: Vitamin B12 supplementation is generally well-tolerated. However, rare side effects include allergic reactions, itching, or rash at the injection site.

f) Adverse effects: There are no known adverse effects associated with vitamin B12 supplementation within the recommended dosage range.

g) Teaching: Patients should be educated on the importance of regular intake of vitamin B12-rich foods, such as meat, fish, and dairy products, for individuals who consume animal products. Vegetarians and vegans should be informed about alternative sources of vitamin B12, such as fortified cereals or nutritional yeast. Patients receiving vitamin B12 injections should be instructed on proper administration techniques and scheduled follow-up appointments for monitoring.

In conclusion, appropriate supplementation with vitamins A, D, and B12 can effectively manage deficiencies and contribute to overall health. Close monitoring of serum levels, patient variables, and potential side effects and adverse effects are essential in ensuring optimal therapeutic outcomes. Patient education also plays a crucial role in promoting adherence, reducing the risk of toxicity, and maximizing the benefits of vitamin supplementation.

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