Most of the services/support provided for human trafficking (HT) victim come after they have been trafficked and can be considered as secondary interventions. Review some of the possible risk factors associated with becoming an HT victim, and discuss some possible primary interventions that could service to help prevent or reduce HT. Rationale must be provided 400 words Minimum of two scholarly references in APA format within the last five years published


Human trafficking is a grave violation of human rights and a global phenomenon that affects millions of individuals. It involves the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons by means of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of exploitation (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2018). Most of the interventions and services provided for victims of human trafficking occur after they have already been exploited. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the risk factors associated with becoming a victim of human trafficking and explore primary interventions to prevent or reduce it. This paper will review some possible risk factors and discuss primary interventions that can help combat human trafficking.

Risk Factors Associated with Becoming a Human Trafficking Victim

In order to effectively combat human trafficking, it is essential to understand the risk factors that make individuals vulnerable to exploitation. There are various risk factors associated with becoming a victim of human trafficking, which can be categorized into individual, social, and structural factors.

Individual risk factors include socio-economic vulnerability, lack of education, limited employment opportunities, and a history of abuse or trauma. Individuals from marginalized communities, such as migrants, refugees, and homeless individuals, are particularly vulnerable due to their lack of access to resources and social support networks (Zimmerman & Kiss, 2017). Moreover, people with substance abuse issues or mental health problems are often targeted by traffickers who prey upon their vulnerability.

Social risk factors encompass gender inequality, discrimination, and social exclusion. Women and girls are disproportionately affected by human trafficking, particularly for sexual exploitation. Gender-based violence, societal norms that devalue women, and a lack of economic opportunities contribute to their vulnerability (Sharma, Bandewar, & Langer, 2019). Furthermore, individuals belonging to minority or marginalized groups face discrimination and exclusion, making them more susceptible to exploitation.

Structural risk factors relate to broader systemic issues that perpetuate human trafficking. These include weak governance, corruption, political instability, and conflicts. In countries where law enforcement and legal frameworks are ineffective or compromised, traffickers operate with impunity (Musto, Boyd, & Durieux, 2017). Additionally, economic disparities and inequalities within and between countries create conditions conducive to trafficking, as individuals seek better opportunities and fall into the hands of traffickers.

Primary Interventions to Prevent and Reduce Human Trafficking

Primary interventions focus on preventing human trafficking from occurring in the first place by addressing the underlying risk factors. These interventions aim to mitigate the vulnerabilities that make individuals susceptible to exploitation. Several primary interventions have been proposed that can help prevent and reduce human trafficking.

Education and awareness-raising campaigns play a crucial role in preventing human trafficking. By educating individuals about the dangers of trafficking and their rights, they can be empowered to recognize potential trafficking situations and protect themselves. Schools and community-based organizations can implement comprehensive anti-trafficking education programs that cover topics such as identifying recruitment tactics, understanding traffickers’ methods, and promoting self-advocacy (Ottisova, Hemmings, Dominey, & Howard, 2019). Furthermore, awareness campaigns targeting vulnerable populations, such as migrants or homeless individuals, can provide information about the risks and support available to them.

Poverty alleviation initiatives and economic empowerment programs can also significantly reduce the risk of human trafficking. By addressing socio-economic vulnerabilities and providing individuals with viable alternatives, these interventions help to disrupt the supply and demand chain of trafficking. Economic empowerment programs can include skills training, vocational education, and job placement services, enabling individuals to secure sustainable livelihoods (Siapush & Jafarabadi, 2017). Additionally, microfinance initiatives and access to credit can empower individuals to start small businesses and improve their economic conditions.

Strengthening legal frameworks and law enforcement responses is crucial in combating human trafficking. Countries need to enact and enforce legislation that criminalizes all forms of trafficking, ensures the protection and assistance of victims, and holds perpetrators accountable. Effective law enforcement responses involve training and capacity building for police, prosecutors, and judges to identify, investigate, and prosecute trafficking cases (LaFree, 2020). Cooperation between countries is also essential to address transnational trafficking networks.


LaFree, G. (2020). The ATF and the UNTOC: Approaches to trafficking in persons. Terrorism and Political Violence, 1-26.

Musto, J., Boyd, C., & Durieux, A. (2017). Risk factors and vulnerable populations for human trafficking: illicit migration for domestic and farm labor in Oklahoma. Policy, Practice, and Research in Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery, 1(2), 61-75.

Ottisova, L., Hemmings, S., Dominey, J., & Howard, L. M. (2019). Factors associated with the identification and management of domestic violence and abuse by healthcare professionals: a systematic review of intervention studies. PLoS One, 14(5), e0216858.

Sharma, V., Bandewar, S., & Langer, A. (2019). primary research article reproductive trafficking in India: a review of evidence. Reproductive Health Matters, 27(55), 1-11.

Siapush, M., & Jafarabadi, M. A. (2017). The effects of economic empowerment programs for women on reducing domestic violence: Examining the moderating roles of the society. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1-24.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2018). Global report on trafficking in persons 2018. Retrieved from

Zimmerman, C., & Kiss, L. (2017). Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern. PLoS Medicine, 14(11), e1002437.

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