Patient history reveals a 20 pack-a-year smoking history and type 2 diabetes. The last labs done 18 months ago were normal. What is this patient’s cardiovascular risk based on these lab results? Describe how the FNP would clinically manage and follow up this patient. List the pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions.


Smoking and diabetes are two well-known risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD encompasses a broad range of conditions including coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. Assessing an individual’s cardiovascular risk requires evaluating various factors, including their medical history, lifestyle habits, and laboratory results. In this case, the patient has a 20 pack-a-year smoking history and type 2 diabetes. Although the patient’s last labs were normal 18 months ago, it is crucial to consider their cardiovascular risk based on these factors and plan appropriate management and follow-up.

Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

The patient’s smoking history is significant as it contributes to the development of atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries. Smoking is associated with increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction, all of which contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis and subsequent CVD (Rahman et al., 2014). Furthermore, smoking also increases the risk of developing diabetes and worsens glycemic control in individuals with diabetes (Chamberlain et al., 2019). Therefore, the patient’s smoking history significantly raises their cardiovascular risk.

Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and high blood sugar levels. Diabetes is a well-established risk factor for CVD, and individuals with diabetes have a two to four-fold higher risk of developing CVD compared to those without diabetes (Sarwar et al., 2010). The pathophysiology underlying the increased cardiovascular risk in diabetes is complex and involves several mechanisms such as chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and dyslipidemia (Rutter et al., 2015). The combination of smoking and diabetes greatly amplifies the patient’s cardiovascular risk.

Although the patient’s last labs were normal 18 months ago, it is essential to consider the progression of atherosclerosis and the potential development of diabetes-related complications. While the lab results from 18 months ago provide valuable baseline information, they do not represent the current cardiovascular risk status. Additionally, it is important to note that some cardiovascular risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure and abnormal lipid profile, may not be detectable through routine blood tests alone.

Clinical Management and Follow-up

As a Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP), the management and follow-up of this patient would involve both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. The overarching goals of the management plan would be to reduce the patient’s cardiovascular risk, promote smoking cessation, optimize diabetes management, and prevent the development of diabetes-related complications.

Pharmacological Interventions:

1. Smoking Cessation Therapy: As smoking is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, smoking cessation should be a priority. The FNP can prescribe pharmacological agents such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or medications like varenicline or bupropion to assist with smoking cessation. Additionally, counseling and behavioral interventions should be incorporated to maximize the chances of successful cessation (Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement [ICSI], 2017).

2. Diabetes Management: To optimize diabetes control and reduce cardiovascular risk, the FNP may prescribe medications such as metformin, which improves insulin sensitivity and reduces blood glucose levels. Depending on the patient’s glycemic control, additional antidiabetic agents like sulfonylureas, GLP-1 receptor agonists, or SGLT2 inhibitors may be considered (American Diabetes Association [ADA], 2020). Regular monitoring of HbA1c levels and adjustment of medications based on individualized treatment goals are important aspects of diabetes management.

Non-pharmacological Interventions:

1. Lifestyle Modifications: Lifestyle changes play a crucial role in reducing cardiovascular risk. The FNP should emphasize the importance of a healthy diet, regular physical activity, weight management, and stress reduction. The patient should be encouraged to follow a balanced diet, low in saturated fats, and rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins. Regular physical activity, such as brisk walking or aerobic exercises, should be recommended (Eckel et al., 2014). Strategies for stress reduction, such as mindfulness or relaxation techniques, should be explored.

2. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Modification: The FNP should assess and manage other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. If the patient has hypertension or elevated blood pressure, antihypertensive medications, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), may be prescribed (Whelton et al., 2018). If the lipid profile is abnormal, statins may be considered to manage dyslipidemia and reduce the risk of CVD (Grundy et al., 2019).

Regular Follow-up:

The FNP should establish a regular follow-up schedule, which may initially occur more frequently to closely monitor the patient’s progress. The frequency of follow-up visits may be adjusted based on the patient’s response to treatment, glycemic control, smoking cessation progress, and achievement of target goals. During follow-up visits, the FNP should assess the patient’s adherence to medications, monitor for adverse effects, provide counseling and support for smoking cessation, review lifestyle modifications, and perform necessary laboratory tests to evaluate the patient’s cardiovascular risk (ICSI, 2017).


In conclusion, the cardiovascular risk for this patient is significant due to their smoking history and type 2 diabetes. The FNP’s clinical management should focus on reducing overall cardiovascular risk, promoting smoking cessation, optimizing diabetes control, and preventing the development of diabetes-related complications. A combination of pharmacological interventions (smoking cessation therapy and diabetes medications) along with non-pharmacological interventions (lifestyle modifications and cardiovascular risk factor modification) should be implemented. Regular follow-up visits and monitoring are essential to assess progress, make necessary adjustments, and ensure optimal patient care.

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