This assignment will help to identify the normal growth and development by topic for each age group. In the final column of the assignment, you need to observe a child and apply the information you gathered and document your findings in comparison by the particular age of that child. Compare principles of growth and development when caring for pediatric clients. Using the template linked below: Explain the topics in the worksheet by age. Identify one milestone and one expected norm for each category by age group.

Title: Normal Growth and Development in Pediatric Clients: Milestones and Expected Norms across Different Age Groups


Understanding the normal growth and development of pediatric clients is crucial for healthcare professionals working with children. As children progress through various age groups, they experience physical, cognitive, social, and emotional changes that shape their development. This assignment aims to identify the normal growth and development by topic for each age group, and subsequently, observe a child to compare their progress with the established milestones and expected norms.

Topic 1: Physical Growth and Development

Physical growth and development encompass changes in height, weight, body proportions, and motor skills. Each age group exhibits unique characteristics and milestones:

Infants (0-12 months):
– Milestone: Attains head control by 3-4 months.
– Expected norm: Doubles birth weight by 4-6 months.

Toddlers (1-3 years):
– Milestone: Begins walking independently around 12-15 months.
– Expected norm: Gains 4-6 pounds per year.

Preschoolers (3-5 years):
– Milestone: Becomes proficient in skipping by 4-5 years.
– Expected norm: Add 2-3 inches in height per year.

School-age children (6-12 years):
– Milestone: Can ride a bicycle without training wheels by 8-9 years.
– Expected norm: Gains approximately 4-7 pounds per year.

Adolescents (13-18 years):
– Milestone: Experiences the growth spurt during puberty.
– Expected norm: Significantly increases in height, with girls reaching their adult height by 14-15 years, and boys by 16-17 years.

Topic 2: Cognitive Development

Cognitive development refers to the acquisition and refinement of intellectual abilities, including memory, problem-solving, language, and abstract thinking. Key milestones and expected norms in cognitive development across different age groups are as follows:

Infants (0-12 months):
– Milestone: Develops object permanence by 8-12 months.
– Expected norm: Responds to their name by turning their head by 6-9 months.

Toddlers (1-3 years):
– Milestone: Begins to engage in pretend play by 18-24 months.
– Expected norm: Uses a vocabulary of around 200 words by 2 years.

Preschoolers (3-5 years):
– Milestone: Develops an understanding of time concepts (e.g., yesterday, tomorrow) by 4-5 years.
– Expected norm: Uses sentences with 4 or more words by 4 years.

School-age children (6-12 years):
– Milestone: Demonstrates logical thinking and problem-solving abilities.
– Expected norm: Has a growing ability to understand and use abstract and symbolic reasoning.

Adolescents (13-18 years):
– Milestone: Develops advanced reasoning and decision-making skills.
– Expected norm: Displays increasing capacity for abstract thinking and hypothetical reasoning.

Topic 3: Social and Emotional Development

Social and emotional development encompasses the ability to form relationships, regulate emotions, and develop self-identity. The following milestones and expected norms can be observed across different age groups:

Infants (0-12 months):
– Milestone: Begins to demonstrate social smile and recognize caregivers by 2-3 months.
– Expected norm: Exhibits separation anxiety around 9-12 months.

Toddlers (1-3 years):
– Milestone: Engages in parallel play with other children around 2 years.
– Expected norm: Demonstrates tantrums and defiance as a result of asserting independence.

Preschoolers (3-5 years):
– Milestone: Shows empathy towards others by offering comfort or assistance to peers.
– Expected norm: Experiences some difficulty sharing and taking turns.

School-age children (6-12 years):
– Milestone: Develops friendships based on shared interests and activities.
– Expected norm: Demonstrates empathy and concern for the feelings of others.

Adolescents (13-18 years):
– Milestone: Formulates a sense of personal identity and self-concept.
– Expected norm: Engages in peer relationships and explores romantic interests.

Observation and Comparison:

To apply the information gathered from the assignment, an observation of a child within a specific age group is required. By comparing the child’s milestones and expected norms to the established benchmarks for their age group, we can assess their growth and development.


Understanding the normal growth and development of pediatric clients is essential for healthcare professionals working with children. This assignment has explored the milestones and expected norms for physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development across different age groups. By observing and comparing a child’s progress with these established benchmarks, healthcare providers can effectively monitor and support their growth and development.

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